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Contentstack glossary

Here, you will find definitions of terms related to headless CMS technology and links to additional resources.

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A/B testing

A/B testing is a digital marketing optimization method that compares two versions of a webpage, email, or other marketing assets to determine which performs better. This process involves showing the two variants (A and B) to different segments of users and analyzing the results to see which version achieves higher engagement, conversions, or other desired outcomes.

API first

API first is an approach where the development of an application or system starts by designing and implementing the application programming interfaces (APIs) first, before building the user interface or other components. By prioritizing the API design, developers can ensure that the core functionality and data access of the application are well-defined and optimized for integration with other systems or platforms. API first development promotes modularity, reusability and interoperability.

API first companies

API-first companies are organizations that prioritize the development and design of their application programming interfaces (APIs) as a core aspect of their business strategy. These companies adopt an API-centric approach by placing APIs at the forefront of their product or service offerings. They consider APIs not only as a means to connect their own systems but also as a way to enable integration with third-party developers, partners or clients.

Application performance optimization

Application performance optimization refers to the systematic process of enhancing and fine-tuning a software application to ensure it operates at its maximum potential efficiency. The goal is to reduce load times, improve response times, and provide a seamless user experience, all while minimizing the consumption of resources. Techniques include code refinement, improving database queries, and optimizing server configurations.

Automation hub

An Automation Hub is a centralized platform that streamlines and automates various business processes, integrating tools and systems for efficient workflow management.

Bootstrap framework

The Bootstrap Framework is an open-source front-end development framework created by Twitter. It offers a comprehensive set of pre-designed templates, styles, and interactive components that streamline building responsive and visually appealing websites and web applications. Bootstrap enables developers to achieve consistency in design while enhancing the user experience across various devices.

Business to business (B2B)

Business-to-business, or (B2B) encapsulates the transactions and interactions between two businesses rather than between a company and an individual consumer. This model often involves wholesale distributors and manufacturers of products, where one firm provides the materials or services the other needs to operate, create, or sell their products.

Business to consumer (B2C)

Business-to-consumer or B2C, refers to the process where businesses sell products or services directly to individual consumers. This model is characterized by shorter sales cycles, larger target markets, and direct marketing tactics to attract and retain end-users.

CMS e-commerce

CMS e-commerce refers to integrating a content management system (CMS) with an e-commerce platform. It combines the capabilities of a CMS, which manages and delivers content, with e-commerce functionalities such as product catalog management, shopping cart, and payment processing. CMS e-commerce solutions enable businesses to create and manage content-rich websites while seamlessly incorporating e-commerce features to sell products or services online.

CMS migration

CMS migration refers to moving a website's content, data, and functionalities from one Content Management System (CMS) to another, often for enhanced features and performance.

Cloud content management

Cloud content management refers to digital content storage, management, and delivery through cloud-based platforms. It encompasses the functionalities of traditional content management systems, such as document management, collaboration, version control, and access control, but with the added benefits of scalability, accessibility, and ease of integration. Cloud content management enables organizations to store and manage content securely in the cloud, making it accessible from anywhere and facilitating seamless collaboration.


Composable refers to the ability of a system or component to be easily combined or assembled with other systems or components to create new and customized functionalities. It implies modularity and flexibility in building complex systems.

Composable applications

Composable applications are software applications or systems that are built using a composable architecture. They are designed to be flexible and modular, allowing developers to combine and integrate different components to create customized solutions easily.

Composable banking

Composable banking refers to a banking system that is built using a composable architecture. It allows banks to assemble different banking services, such as payments, loans, and account management, into customized offerings that can be easily integrated with other systems or platforms.

Composable cloud

Composable cloud refers to a cloud computing infrastructure that is designed with a composable architecture. It enables organizations to flexibly allocate and integrate computing resources based on their specific needs, allowing for efficient and scalable resource management.

Composable commerce

Composable commerce refers to an approach where e-commerce systems are built by composing modular and independent services or microservices. Instead of relying on monolithic platforms, composable commerce enables businesses to select and combine specialized services, such as payment gateways, product catalogs, inventory management or marketing tools, to create a customized e-commerce solution. This approach provides flexibility, scalability and the ability to adapt to changing business needs.

Composable commerce architecture

Composable commerce architecture refers to the architectural approach in designing e-commerce systems that emphasizes modularity and flexibility. It enables businesses to build and integrate different commerce capabilities, such as catalog management, checkout, and inventory management, in a composable manner.

Composable commerce experiences

Composable commerce experiences refer to an approach in e-commerce that emphasizes the ability to build and customize commerce experiences by composing different services or components. It enables businesses to create flexible and personalized customer experiences by combining and integrating various commerce functionalities.

Composable content

Composable content refers to digital or multimedia elements, such as text, images, videos, or interactive components, that are created and structured to allow seamless integration, recombination, and repurposing within various contexts and platforms. This type of content is designed to be modular and adaptable, enabling easy assembly and disassembly to cater to different audience preferences, devices, or communication goals. Composable content promotes flexibility and efficiency in content creation and distribution, empowering creators to deliver engaging and tailored experiences across diverse channels and mediums.

Composable customer data platform (CDP)

Composable CDP refers to a Customer Data Platform (CDP) that is designed with a composable architecture. It enables businesses to easily integrate and customize different components of the CDP according to their specific needs.

Composable digital experience platform

A composable digital experience platform or composable DXP is a modular and flexible DXP that allows businesses to select, integrate, and rearrange different digital components based on their unique needs. Leveraging a "build-as-you-go" approach empowers organizations to create tailor-made digital experiences without being confined to a single vendor or solution.

Composable e-commerce

Composable ecommerce refers to an approach in e-commerce that focuses on building flexible and customizable commerce systems by combining and integrating various e-commerce functionalities. It allows businesses to create tailored customer commerce experiences by composing different services or components.

Composable technology

Composable technology refers to technological solutions or systems that are designed with a composable architecture. It enables the composition and integration of different technologies or components to create customized solutions or applications.

Content management system (CMS)

A content management system or CMS is a software tool for quickly creating, managing and modifying digital content without technical expertise. It offers a user-friendly interface, enabling non-technical users to maintain dynamic websites effectively.

Content strategy

Content strategy is a strategic approach to managing and delivering digital content. It involves planning, creating, organizing, and distributing content that aligns with an organization's objectives and resonates with its target audience. A well-crafted content strategy ensures the availability of valuable and relevant content, enhances brand identity and supports business goals.


Content+cloud is an integrated approach where content management systems (CMS) or digital asset management (DAM) systems are combined with cloud computing technologies and services. It involves leveraging cloud-based infrastructure, storage, and computing power for efficient content management, delivery, and scalability. Content+cloud solutions provide organizations with the benefits of cloud computing, such as accessibility, scalability, and cost-efficiency, while managing and delivering their content effectively.

Customer personas

Customer personas are semi-fictional representations of ideal customer profiles (ICP) based on accurate data and market research. ICPs help businesses understand their target audience, including demographics, behavior patterns, motivations, and goals, facilitating more effective and targeted marketing strategies.

Database management

Database management (DBM) encompasses systematically administrating and maintaining data within a database system. DBM includes data storage, retrieval, security, backup, and performance optimization tasks. Effective database management ensures data accuracy, accessibility, and reliability, supporting efficient business processes and decision-making.

Demand generation

Demand Generation is a marketing strategy focused on creating awareness and interest in a company's products or services, aiming to build a pipeline of potential customers.

Digital asset management

Digital Asset Management organizes, stores, and distributes digital assets such as images, videos, documents, and audio files in a centralized system. DAM systems provide tools for tagging, metadata management, versioning, and searching, allowing users to locate and retrieve assets efficiently when needed. DAM helps streamline content creation, collaboration, and distribution processes, ensuring brand consistency and enhancing digital asset reuse.

Digital asset management systems

A digital asset management (DAM) system is a software solution that stores, organizes, and distributes digital assets. It provides a centralized repository where users can upload, manage metadata, search, and retrieve assets efficiently. DAM systems often include features such as version control, rights management, workflow automation, and analytics, allowing organizations to optimize their digital asset workflows, maintain brand consistency, and enhance content distribution.

Digital experience platform

A digital experience platform (DXP) is a software framework designed to engage and interact with a broad audience across various digital touchpoints. It centralizes and streamlines content creation, management, and delivery, ensuring a cohesive and personalized user experience across websites, mobile apps, portals, and other digital channels.

Dynamic content delivery

Dynamic content delivery is a digital strategy where content is adapted in real-time based on user interactions, preferences, or demographics. This approach enables websites and applications to provide personalized experiences, increasing relevance and engagement with the audience.

Elastic load balancing

Elastic load balancing is a network technique that distributes incoming application traffic across servers to optimize resource use and maximize throughput.

Email marketing

Email marketing is a digital marketing strategy that sends targeted and personalized emails to subscribers or potential customers. Its primary aims include building and nurturing customer relationships, promoting products or services, and driving conversions. Successful email marketing relies on thoughtful planning, audience segmentation, engaging content, and performance analysis.

Extensible hypertext markup (XHTML)

Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) is a markup language that combines HTML and XML. It's used for creating web pages and is known for its stricter syntax rules than HTML, ensuring more rigorous standards compliance and cross-browser compatibility.

Extensible markup language (XML)

Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language used to structure and organize data in a readable and machine-readable format. It facilitates the exchange of information between different systems and applications, making it a foundation for data interchange on the web.

Frequency capping

Frequency capping is a feature in digital advertising that limits the number of times an ad is shown to the same user over a specific period, preventing ad fatigue.

Front-end development

Front-end development, often called client-side development, creates the user interface and interactivity of websites and web applications. Front-end developers use technologies like HTML, CSS, and JavaScript to design and implement the visual elements and user experience that users directly interact with in their web browsers.

Front-end performance optimization

Front-end performance optimization involves improving the speed and efficiency of a website's client-side components. This includes optimizing code, reducing load times, and enhancing the overall user experience on the browser end, which is crucial for retaining visitors and improving search engine rankings.

GDPR compliance

GDPR Compliance refers to adhering to the regulations outlined in the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), a European Union law designed to protect individuals' privacy and data rights. Organizations that handle the personal data of EU citizens must comply with GDPR rules, including obtaining consent, securing data, ensuring transparency, and allowing individuals to have control over their data.


Geo-targeting is a practice in digital marketing where content and advertisements are shown to users based on their geographic location, enhancing relevance and engagement.

Google AMP

Google AMP or accelerated mobile pages is an open-source framework designed to enhance the performance of web content and advertisements on mobile devices. By simplifying HTML, streamlining CSS rules, and optimizing JavaScript, AMP aims to accelerate page loading times, providing a more responsive user experience on smartphones and tablets.

Headless API

A Headless application programming interface (Headless API), is a unique backend technology offering data and operational features to numerous frontend systems. It achieves this without directly linking to any specific frontend technology or framework. This strategy empowers developers by allowing them to use a single backend system for distributing content or services across multiple platforms. These platforms can include, but are not limited to, web interfaces, mobile applications, and Internet of Things (IoT) devices. This ensures a high degree of flexibility and scalability.

Headless CMS

A Headless CMS is a content management system that provides backend content management capabilities without a front-end delivery layer. It allows content to be stored, managed, and then delivered via APIs to any platform or device, offering greater flexibility and customization for developers.

Headless commerce

Headless commerce refers to an architecture where the front-end presentation layer (the "head") and the back-end e-commerce functionality (the "body") are decoupled. In this approach, the e-commerce platform's back end serves as a headless content management system (CMS) or an e-commerce engine, while the front-end presentation layer is built separately and can be delivered through various channels such as websites, mobile apps, IoT devices or voice assistants. Headless commerce enables flexibility, scalability and the ability to deliver consistent experiences across multiple touchpoints.

Headless commerce architecture

Headless commerce architecture is an approach where the front-end presentation layer and the back-end e-commerce functionality are decoupled. This architecture allows for greater flexibility and scalability by separating the user interface from the e-commerce engine. In a headless commerce architecture, the e-commerce engine serves as an API-driven back end, providing data and functionalities to multiple front-end touchpoints such as websites, mobile apps, or IoT devices.

Hybrid cloud

A Hybrid Cloud is a cloud computing environment that combines on-premises infrastructure, private cloud services, and public cloud services, offering flexibility and scalability.

Hyper text markup language 5 (HTML 5)

HTML5, short for HyperText Markup Language 5, is the latest version of the standard markup language used for creating content on the World Wide Web. It introduces modern features, semantic elements, and multimedia capabilities, making it well-suited for developing contemporary and interactive web applications.

Hyperlink strategy

A hyperlink, often referred to as a link, is a navigational element embedded within digital content that facilitates a seamless jump from one specific point in a document or webpage to another location within the same or a different document or webpage. A hyperlink strategy is a deliberate approach to using hyperlinks within digital content to enhance user engagement, improve navigation, and boost the SEO performance of a website. A well-crafted hyperlink strategy involves linking to relevant internal and external content, using descriptive anchor text, and ensuring links add value to the user.

Ideal customer profile

The ideal customer profile (ICP) is a detailed customer persona representation of the characteristics and attributes that define the most suitable and valuable customers for a business. It encompasses demographic, psychographic, and behavioral traits that help guide marketing and sales efforts toward attracting and engaging the right audience.

Infrastructure as service

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is a form of cloud computing that provides virtualized computing resources over the Internet, offering scalability and flexibility.

JavaScript object notation (JSON)

JSON, or JavaScript Object Notation, is a lightweight data interchange format commonly used for structuring and transmitting data between a server and a web application or between different components of an application. Its human-readable format and simplicity make it a popular choice for data exchange in web development and other programming contexts.


Kerning is a typography technique that adjusts the space between characters in a text, enhancing readability and visual appeal in graphic design and typesetting.

Key performance indicator (KPI)

KPI, an abbreviation for Key Performance Indicator, is a measurable and quantifiable metric businesses and organizations use to assess the effectiveness of their strategies and objectives. KPIs serve as crucial markers, reflecting the progress towards predetermined goals. These indicators are carefully chosen to align with the company's mission, providing valuable insights into various areas such as sales, marketing, customer satisfaction, and overall organizational performance.


A keyword is a term that users type into a search engine for information, products, or services. Keywords are crucial for optimizing website content to increase visibility on search engine results pages, drive traffic, and attract the target audience.

Knowledge graph

A Knowledge Graph is a network of interconnected data intended to provide rich, contextualized information. It's used in search engines and AI applications to enhance the understanding and response accuracy of user queries, leading to more relevant search results and data insights.

Landing page optimization

Landing page optimization involves refining a specific web page, known as a landing page, to maximize its effectiveness in converting visitors into customers or leads. This optimization encompasses design enhancements, content improvements, call-to-action optimization, and user experience enhancements, all aimed at increasing conversion rates and achieving marketing goals.

Lead generation

Lead generation is a marketing activity that attracts and converts potential customers into leads to nurture them through the sales funnel until they purchase. Strategies for lead generation can include content marketing, email campaigns, social media advertising, search engine marketing and search engine optimization

Lifetime value

Lifetime Value, often abbreviated as LTV, is a metric that predicts the total revenue a business can expect from a customer throughout their customer lifecycle. It helps companies focus on long-term customer engagement and profitability rather than short-term gains.

Mobile app marketing

Mobile app marketing encompasses strategies to attract, engage, and retain mobile application users. This includes app store optimization, in-app advertising, push notifications, and personalized communication to enhance user experience and drive app downloads and usage.

Mobile first

Mobile First is a design and development approach that prioritizes designing and optimizing a website or application's user experience for mobile devices before addressing the desktop version. This strategy ensures that the digital product is intuitive, fast, and user-friendly on smaller screens, catering to the growing mobile user base.

Modular approach

A modular approach involves dividing a complex system into independent, manageable units. Each module functions separately yet integrates into a cohesive whole, enhancing flexibility and simplifying maintenance.

Monolithic digital experience platform

A monolithic digital experience platform is a vendor-specific (or proprietary) DXP implementation where all its functionalities and components are intertwined and operate as a unified system. Unlike modular platforms, changes or updates in a monolithic DXP can be more complex, as altering one component might affect the entire system. However, they often offer a consistent and standardized user experience due to their integrated nature.


Next.js is an open-source framework that extends React. It provides server-side rendering, static site generation, and automatic code splitting. It streamlines web development, improves performance and SEO, and suits small and large projects.

No code CMS

A No Code CMS (Content Management System) is a platform that enables users to create and manage digital content without requiring coding skills. It provides intuitive interfaces, drag-and-drop elements, and pre-built templates, allowing non-technical users to design, edit, and publish content efficiently.

Omnichannel experience

Omnichannel experience is a seamless, integrated customer experience across various channels and devices. This strategy ensures consistent and interconnected customer interactions, whether online or offline, enhancing customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Omnichannel marketing

Omnichannel marketing creates a seamless and consistent brand experience across multiple channels and devices. This approach ensures that whether a customer interacts with a brand through social media, email, in-store, or via a mobile app, they receive a unified and personalized experience.

Open source

Open Source refers to software or platforms whose source code is publicly available for anyone to view, use, modify, and distribute. This collaborative approach fosters community-driven development, transparency, and flexibility, enabling developers to contribute to the improvement and customization of the software.

Page speed optimization

Page Speed Optimization improves the loading speed and performance of a website's web pages. It involves optimizing various elements such as images, scripts, and server responses to ensure fast loading times, enhance user experience, and positively impact search engine rankings.

Portable network graphics (PNG)

Portable Network Graphics (PNG) is a raster graphics file format, which is a type of digital image file format that stores images as a grid of individual pixels. PNG can support lossless data compression, which is a method of reducing the size of a file without losing any of the original data. PNGs are commonly used for images on the web. It is preferred for its ability to handle transparent backgrounds, providing a crisp and clear image quality, especially for logos, icons, and complex artwork.

QR code

A Quick Response Code (QR code) is a barcode distinguishable by its square grid of black squares on a white background. Designed for rapid scanning through a QR code reader or a smartphone camera, it encodes data as pixel patterns within the grid. This technology facilitates quick access to digital information, including website URLs, text, and other online content, by translating these pixel arrangements into usable digital data.

Quality score

Quality score is a metric used in online advertising to measure the quality and relevance of ads and keywords. It is pivotal in determining an ad's placement on search engine results pages (SERPs) and how much an advertiser pays per click (CPC). Quality Score is calculated based on many factors, including the relevance of keywords to the ad group, the quality and originality of the ad's content, and the overall user experience of the landing page.


A query refers to a request for information or data from users. It's often used in search engines, databases, and online forms, where users input keywords or phrases to retrieve relevant information or results.


Remarketing is a strategic digital marketing technique where brands re-engage with users who have previously interacted with their website or mobile app. Remarketing is done through targeted ads to convert past visitors into customers by reminding them of products or services they viewed.

Responsive web design

Responsive Web Design (RWD) is a design approach to create websites that automatically adapt and respond to different screen sizes and devices. Developing RWD ensures that the content and layout remain visually appealing and functional on various devices, from desktops to tablets and smartphones.

SSL certificates

A secure sockets layer (SSL certificate) is a website's digital authentication tool. Its primary function is establishing secure and encrypted connections and safeguarding online interactions and transactions. This certificate ensures that the data exchanged between web servers and internet browsers is confidential and protected from external threats. It serves as a digital authentication tool for websites. Its primary function is establishing secure and encrypted connections and safeguarding online interactions and transactions. This certificate ensures that the data exchanged between web servers and internet browsers is confidential and protected from external threats.

Scalable vector graphics (SVG)

Scalable Vector Graphics, or SVG, is an XML-based format for depicting two-dimensional graphics. SVG has a unique ability to scale without losing quality, making it ideal for logos, icons, and complex illustrations in web design, ensuring crisp and clear visuals on any screen size.

Search engine marketing (SEM)

Search Engine Marketing (SEM) refers to promoting websites and content through paid advertising on search engines. SEM includes Pay-Per-Click (PPC) ads and strategies to increase a website's visibility on search engine results pages, driving targeted traffic and conversions.


A touch point is where a customer or potential customer interacts with a brand, product, or service. This interaction can occur across various digital and physical channels and is critical in shaping the customer's perception and experience.

Tracking pixel

A tracking pixel is a transparent, 1x1 [pixel] image embedded in emails and websites. Tracking pixels is used to collect data about user behavior, such as email opens or website visits, providing valuable insights for digital marketing and website analytics.


Typography refers to the art and technique of arranging typefaces, fonts, and visual elements to create visually appealing and readable text. Typography is crucial in graphic design, content creation, and communication, influencing how readers perceive and understand written information. Typography encompasses various aspects, including font selection, spacing, line length, and overall layout, all of which contribute to the aesthetics and legibility of printed and digital materials.


Usability refers to how easily a user can re-establish proficiency after not using a design or application. This proficiency can be realized through the anagram MEELS, including an interface's intuitive and user-friendly factors like memorability (M), efficiency of use (E), error frequency (E), ease of learning (L), and user satisfaction (S).

User experience (UX)

A user experience (UX) encompasses everything from a user's interaction with a company to their experience with its services and products. UX design focuses on creating accessible, efficient, relevant, and delightful experiences through websites and apps. Its ultimate goal is to ensure users have a memorable and fulfilling experience.

User experience (UX) design

User Experience (UX) Design involves designing digital interfaces, products, or services considering the user's needs and preferences. It focuses on creating intuitive, efficient, and enjoyable interactions, resulting in positive user experiences and increased customer satisfaction.

User flow

User flow refers to the sequential steps or pathways users follow when interacting with a website, application, or digital product. It outlines a user's entire journey, from their initial entry point to completing a specific task or goal, such as purchasing or signing up for a service. User flows are meticulously designed to ensure a seamless and intuitive experience, guiding them through the interface with clear and logical steps.


Versioning is managing and organizing different iterations or versions of a document, software, or digital asset. It involves creating a systematic way to track changes, updates, and edits made over time, ensuring a clear record of the evolution of the file or project. Versioning is particularly critical in collaborative environments, software development, content management systems, and document editing, where multiple individuals or teams simultaneously work on the same project.


The viewport is the visible area of a web page that a user sees on their screen. It varies with devices - on a desktop, it's typically the size of the browser window, while on mobile devices, it's the screen size. The viewport concept is crucial in responsive web design, ensuring web content is displayed appropriately across different devices.

Vue JavaScript framework

Vue JavaScript framework, or Vue.js is an advanced JavaScript framework revolutionizing user interface creation and single-page app development. Renowned for its simplicity, flexibility, and scalability, Vue.js enables developers to craft exceptional, interactive web experiences easily.

Web personalization

Web personalization refers to the dynamic process of tailoring online content, user experiences, and website interactions to cater specifically to each visitor's individual preferences, behaviors, and needs. This customization involves leveraging data analytics, user profiling, and advanced algorithms to deliver relevant and engaging content, product recommendations, layout adjustments, and other website elements that enhance user satisfaction, increase engagement, and ultimately drive desired outcomes such as conversions, user retention, and a more personalized online journey.


A webhook represents a system of automated notifications. It functions as a mechanism through which an application can instantly relay information to other applications as events occur. This process ensures that data is transmitted in real time, contrasting with the more common API approach that requires regular data requests or polling to obtain updates.

Website optimization

Website optimization encompasses a range of activities, from SEO, speed enhancements, and content adjustments that leverage cutting-edge tools, advanced strategies, and rigorous experiments to improve a website's performance, including increasing website visits, conversions, and revenue.


Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) is a markup language that combines HTML and XML. It's used for creating web pages and is known for its stricter syntax rules than HTML, ensuring more rigorous standards compliance and cross-browser compatibility.


Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language used to structure and organize data in a readable and machine-readable format. It facilitates the exchange of information between different systems and applications, making it a foundation for data interchange on the web.

XSS attack

An XSS attack, or Cross-Site Scripting attack, is a security breach where an attacker injects malicious scripts into content from otherwise trusted websites. This attack compromises users' interactions with the affected website, potentially stealing information or impersonating the user.


A yield refers to the percentage of users who take a specific desired action after engaging with a marketing campaign, website, or application. This action can vary widely, including making a purchase, filling out a form, subscribing to a newsletter, or clicking on an advertisement. Essentially, yield measures the conversion rate of visitors into customers or leads.

Yield optimization

Yield optimization refers to the strategic process used in digital marketing and online advertising, where publishers and advertisers continuously analyze and adjust their advertising inventory and placement strategies to maximize their revenue generation while maintaining a quality user experience.


In web design and CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), Z-Index refers to the stacking order of elements on a web page. It determines which element appears on top of or behind other elements. A higher Z-index value places an element above those with lower values, affecting the visual hierarchy and layout of the page.

Zero downtime migration

Zero downtime migration is a process in information technology where the migration of a system, application, database, or an entire server environment is carried out without any noticeable service interruption or downtime for the end user.

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