Content in Contentstack refers to entries (pieces of content created using the defined content types) and assets (media files such as images, videos, documents). Managing content, therefore, involves managing these two entities in your stack.
This section is mainly for content managers, editors, or any users who play an active role after the content structure is created. It goes into the details of creating, editing, publishing and managing the content of your digital property.
This is undoubtedly the most important part of Contentstack. This section lets you add, delete, or edit any piece of content on your website
Before we start working with entries, it is important to ensure that the required content types are in place. Refer to our guide on Content Types.
An entry is the actual piece of content that you wish to publish. Entries can be created for one of the available content types. In this section, we will understand how to add, edit, publish, unpublish, and localize an entry.
You can start adding content on your website by creating an entry.
Entries are created by adding content to existing content types. Therefore, to create a new entry, click the Content link to view the list of content types available in your stack.
Content types come in two types: Single and Multiple. A Single content type can store just one entry, while Multiple lets you create multiple entries.
Select the appropriate content type to arrive at the Create Entry page. The language selector link on the top-right corner of the page lets you choose the language of the entry. By default, it is set to English (United States).
Each entry, irrespective of the content type, has a Title field. Enter a relevant title for the content in this field. The Webpage content type also has a URL field. Here, you need to provide the relative path for the page, without the base URL. The Base URL is the consistent part of your site’s web address. So, for instance, https://www.contentstack.com is the base URL, and any path given after the base URL is the relative path (for example, /contact_us, /blog/new_post).
There may be additional fields, depending on the kind of content type created by the stack developer. Enter relevant content in all the available fields before saving or publishing it.
It is important to note that each field accepts a specific data type. To know more about the available fields and their respective data types, visit the Fields page.
You can add tags to an entry. This helps you filter or search your entries quickly.
Once the relevant content is added in the content type, click the Save or Publish button. If you choose the Publish option, the Publish Entry dialog box will appear. For more information on publishing entries, see Publish an Entry.
Beside the URL field, we have the Preview (eyeball) icon. Hover on the icon to view the URLs of all the environments in which the entry has been published. Click any of the links to visit the web page and view your published entry.
Let’s assume that we have a content type called My News for publishing news to the site regularly. The fields for the content type are Title, URL, and Body. The following video shows how you can quickly create an entry for this content type.
With Contentstack, editing an existing entry is an effortless task. You can change the site language to which an entry is mapped, choose to revert an entry to an earlier saved version, or simply edit the existing content.
Let’s edit the My first news article entry we created in the previous step, and add some content to its body.
If you have created multiple versions of an entry, you can compare any two versions side-by-side on the same screen. The color-coded comparison view helps you locate the difference between the two versions.
Likewise, you can also compare any two versions of different languages of an entry. For example, you can compare version 2 of ‘English - United States’ to version 4 of the entry in ‘German - Germany’.
To compare versions of an entry, open the entry page and then click the History link located on the top-right corner of the page, against the current version number. This will display a list of all the previous versions of the entry. Hovering on a particular version will display two options – 'View' and 'Compare'. Clicking on the ‘Compare’ option of a particular version will compare that version of entry to the version of entry that you are currently on. The ‘Compare Version’ page that opens will display the two versions of the entry.
At any point, you can change the versions or languages that you want to compare.
To restore an earlier saved version of an entry, click on the entry and then on the Browse link located on the top-right corner of the page, against the current version number. This will display a list of all the previous versions of the entry. Hover on the desired version of entry and click on View. Click Save to make it the current (latest) version of the entry.
In this tutorial, we will restore a previously created version of our entry.
Once you create an entry, you can publish it to one of the available publishing environments. To publish an entry, add the required content on the entry page, and click Publish. You will notice a dialog box with the following publishing options:
If you have added multiple publishing environments for your site, you need to select the environment to which you wish to publish the entry. Common environments include staging, development, and production.
Select the language you wish to publish the entry in. This option is available only if multiple languages are added to your stack.
Note: At a time, you can select only 10 languages to publish your entry.
This option provides you with two sub-options – Publish Now and Publish Later.
'Publish Now' allows you to publish an entry immediately, whereas 'Publish Later' allows you to publish an entry at a later date/time. If you select the 'Publish Later' sub-option, a text box appears asking you to select the date and time of publishing. On clicking this text box, you will be prompted to enter the exact date, time (hour-min-sec), and the time zone.
If the reader selects a time zone that follows daylight saving time (DST), an option named 'Adjust daylight saving time' appears below it. Selecting this option will publish the content at the specified time with DST adjustments.
Note:The DST time difference is one hour.
In this video, we'll see how to publish an entry of My first news article to an environment immediately, as well as at a later time.
Note: You can also publish entries in bulk. Learn more.
When publishing an entry, if there are any unpublished (draft) entries or assets referred within the entry, an alert message will be displayed that will list out all the unpublished entries and assets.
You can then choose to publish the entry with or without publishing all the referred entries/assets.
It is recommended that you always publish the entry along with its references. If you publish the entry without publishing the references, the referred items will not be displayed in the published entry on the specified environment.
You can create a duplicate copy of an existing entry in a few clicks. To achieve this, edit the entry that you wish to create a copy of. Click the More link located at the bottom of the page, and select Copy. This will open the copy of the entry on a new page. Clicking Save will create a copy of the entry.
In this video, we will see how to create a copy of an existing entry.
Since Contentstack offers multi-language support, it allows you to create entries in languages different than the master language, that is., English (United States).
By default, an entry is saved in the master language—English (United States). Localizing an entry means making it available in another language. With Contentstack, you do not have to create a separate entry for each locale. You can localize an existing entry easily. The steps involved in localizing are explained below:
Edit the entry that you wish to localize.
Choose the language of your choice by using the language selector located on the top-right corner of the page.
Replace the existing content with the content in the desired language. As soon as you click Save, it creates a new localized copy of the same entry. This new copy then ceases to fetch data from the main entry in master language. So, any changes made to the entry in master language hereon will not have any impact on the localized copy.
Localizing an entry does not create a separate item in the main list of entries. Under any given content type, you will only see the list of entries in the master language, that is, English (United States). Edit the required entry, and then select the language of your choice. You will then be able to view/edit the localized entry.
Once an entry has been saved in a different language, it becomes independent of the master language. Therefore, each language entry has a separate versioning system.
Note: The Content Manager can view or create content in multiple languages only if the languages are added to the stack by the Admin/Developer.
In earlier examples, we saw how to create an entry in the master locale, i.e., English (United States). Let us now localize this entry, i.e., make this entry available in French (France).
The Entry Presence feature lets you know which stack collaborators are currently working on or viewing the entry that you have opened.
When you open an entry, you will see the initials of the users who are currently on that entry page. Hovering over the initials will display the full name of the collaborator.
In the following screenshot, you can see the initials of the active (in green) and idle (in yellow) users on top, beside the ‘Languages’ selector. You will also be able to see the Workflow details of the entry under the ‘Status’ tab.
The complete details of the entry can be found under the ‘Entry Information’ tab:
If you see an active collaborator’s initials beside a particular field, it means that the user is currently editing that field.
While you can see the list and entry location of the online collaborators in real-time, you can’t see the changes that they are making to a field or the entry, until they save the entry.
When a collaborator creates a new version of the entry by saving the changes, the other active members get a notification that a new version of this entry has been created.
When any online collaborator (let say A) creates a new version (version 3), the version that you are currently viewing or working on (version 2) becomes an older version. If you make changes to this older version and save it, it will become the latest version (version 4), overriding all the changes made by collaborator A in version 3. It is therefore not recommended to make changes to an entry that has multiple collaborators currently editing it.
If the entry that you are currently working on has been referenced by other entries, you will be able to view the details of all the child entries in the entry information panel of your parent entry.
To view the child entry(ies) that contains references of your current entry, click the ‘Entry Information’ tab on the right-hand side panel of the ‘Edit Entry’ page of your entry. Under the ‘Referenced in’ section, you will find links to all the child entries. Clicking on any of the links will lead you to the child entry page.
To export an existing entry, edit the entry that you wish to export. Click the More link located at the bottom of the page, and select Export. This will save the JSON file of the entry to your local storage system. Any changes made to this file will be retained when importing.
Let’s export the My first news article entry that we just created, and save the JSON file into our system.
Contentstack allows you to import the data of existing entries. You can either create a new entry and import content, or you can edit an entry and replace the existing content by importing content.
To import content for a new entry, open the required content type and click + New Entry. Then click the Import link available on the bottom-right corner of the page, and select the appropriate JSON file. While importing, ensure that you have chosen the correct locale to import the file as a localized entry.
To import content for an existing entry, edit the required entry, and click the Import link to upload the JSON file.
Note: The content of the existing entry will be replaced with the new content available in the JSON file. Also, the import event will fail if the file you import contains references to other entries or assets outside the stack or is formatted incorrectly.
In this video, we will show how to import an entry Another news article into your content type. We assume that you already have a JSON file containing all the details of the Another news article entry.
You can remove an entry from your web or mobile property by unpublishing it. To unpublish an existing entry, edit the entry, and click the Unpublish link located at the bottom of the page. Select the environment you wish to remove the entry from. If you wish to unpublish the entry automatically at a later date/time, select Unpublish At and select the date, time, and timezone for unpublishing the entry.
Let's unpublish the entry that we had published earlier.
Deleting an entry is a quick process. Edit the entry that you wish to delete, and click the Delete link located at the bottom of the page. Confirm Delete action to permanently delete the entry and all its version from your stack.
Let's learn how to delete an entry.
You can perform bulk operations on entries. This means you can publish, unpublish, or delete multiple entries at once. Let’s learn how to perform these.
You can send multiple entries for publishing at once. To do this, follow the steps given below:
Note: When you publish multiple entries, only the latest version of the entries will be published.
You can unpublish multiple entries at once. To do this, follow the steps below:
If you want to delete multiple entries from your stack, follow the steps given below:
Note: Please note that this option will permanently delete your entries from the stack.
Contentstack allows you to upload any files (images, videos, PDFs, audio files, and so on) and store it in your repository for future use. This repository of uploaded files is called assets. Once a file has been uploaded to assets, it can be attached to any entry. This is especially useful when you want to use certain assets in multiple entries.
You can start adding assets directly into your default root location, or you can create folders and upload your assets within them.
To upload a new asset, you need to perform the following steps:
Note: Currently, using the dialog, you can only select upto 10 assets at a time. The size of an asset should not exceed 700 MB.
If fewer than 10 files are uploaded and you want to add more, click on the ‘Add more assets’ button (as seen in the above screenshot).
When you click to open an asset file, the page displays the details of the uploaded file. Here’s a screenshot of the Asset Details page:
The details include 'Filename', 'Unique Id', 'File URL', 'Folder', 'Type', 'File Size', 'Created', and 'Modified'.
Each asset is identified uniquely with a separate API interface key, and you can upload multiple files with the same name or the same file multiple times.
You can change the folder location of the asset file (by default, your file gets uploaded to the folder in which you currently are) by clicking on the 'change' link beside the 'Folder' parameter (as seen in above screenshot).
By clicking on the file URL, you will be able to copy the URL of the uploaded file.
Let’s see how you can add multiple assets.
Editing an asset means replacing an existing file with a new one. You can create versions in assets. Read more about Asset Versioning.
To replace an existing asset, perform the following steps:
If you edit and publish an asset, it will replace the existing asset with the new one on all published web pages that contained the earlier asset.
When you update an asset by making changes to the file, title, description, or tags, Contentstack creates a new version of the asset. This allows you to view previously saved/published versions of the asset, get the publish details (who published it, when and where), view older version, and restore the earlier version if required.
If you have created more than one version of an asset, you can load the earlier or later saved version by simply selecting the appropriate version from the link given on the top-right corner.
After uploading a new asset, you can publish it to one or more servers of your choice in the defined site language. When you click the Publish link, you will see a dialog box that contains the following options.
Choose one or more publishing environments. These are the servers to which the entry will be sent for publishing.
By default, English (United States) is selected as the language for publication. Choose another language(s) to publish the asset for other locale(s).
Note: At a time, you can select only 10 languages to publish your asset.
You can publish the asset either immediately or at a later date/time. If you select the Publish Later option, select the date, time, and timezone for publishing the asset.
You can remove an asset from an environment by unpublishing it. To unpublish an existing asset, edit the asset, and click the Unpublish link. Select the environment you wish to remove the asset from. If you wish to automatically unpublish the entry at a later date/time, select Unpublish At and select the date, time, and timezone for unpublishing the entry.
You can filter assets by their type (audio, video, docs, image, PDF, and so on), publish status (draft, published), and tags (if any). This helps you filter or search your assets easily.
To organize assets, you can create folders in the Assets section of Contentstack. Also, you can maintain nested folder structure, which means you can create folders within folders, going up to the depth of five levels.
To create an asset folder, perform the following steps:
Note: Maximum 500 folders can be created per stack including nested folders.
To rename a folder, perform the steps given below:
You can move folders to another location or inside another folder to create a nested folder structure. To do so, perform the steps given below:
This will move your folder within the selected folder. You can add multiple folders within any folder.
You can delete a folder by performing the steps given below:
This will delete your folder along with the asset files within it.
You can perform bulk operations on assets. This means you can publish, unpublish, delete, or move multiple assets at once. Let’s learn how to perform bulk operations on assets.
To publish multiple assets at once, follow the steps given below:
Note: You can select 10 languages at a time.
Note: When you publish multiple assets, only the latest version of the assets will be published.
You can unpublish multiple assets from your environment at once. To do this, follow the steps given below:
Note: You can select 10 languages at a time.
If you want to delete multiple assets from your stack in bulk, follow the steps given below:
Note: This option will permanently delete your assets from the stack.
Contentstack allows you to move multiple assets to a folder. To do that, follow the steps below:
By default, the URLs of all assets of your stack are public. This means that anyone with the URL can access the uploaded asset. Contentstack, however, lets you secure asset URLs and restrict public access. If your asset URLs are secured, unauthorized users cannot access the assets by URL alone.
How to access assets whose public URLs are secured
You need to append the delivery token and the environment name to the asset URL to access assets whose URLs are secured.
Impact of securing asset URLs
If asset URLs are secured for your stack, the Rich Text Editor (RTE) and Markdown fields will not have the provision to insert assets or images.
If you want to display assets in Rich Text Editor and Markdown editors, you need to manually append the authentication parameters to the asset URLs used in these editors. This is however not recommended.
Another impact is that the ‘Overlay’ parameter of the Image Delivery API will not work for assets whose URLs are secured.
How to secure asset URLs for my stack
To secure asset URLs of your stack, send in a request to our support team at email@example.com.